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IKAN PUYU
Anabas testudineus
By: Hussain Mat Din

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Wednesday, 7-Sep-2005 00:00 Email | Share | Bookmark
Potensi Ternakan Ikan Puyu

AMIR PENTERNAK IKAN PUYU
Ikan puyu seringkali dikaitkan dengan kepercayaan mistik. Mitos mengenai ikan puyu yang kononnya dapat menjadi penghalang serangan toyol dan ilmu hitam bukanlah sesuatu yang jarang kita dengar. Malah ada juga yang mempercayai memelihara ikan puyu boleh dijadikan 'tangkal' bagi menghalang perbuatan jahat.Selain memelihara ikan puyu untuk tujuan perhiasan atau menjadikannya penghalang kuasa jahat, tidak kurang juga yang menjadikannya sebagai juadah.

Ikan puyu mempunyai khasiat yang sama dengan ikan-ikan air tawar yang lain, biarpun persepsi masyarakat menganggap ikan puyu sebagai ikan paya atau ikan lumpur. Ikan puyu merupakan spesis ikan air tawar paling lasak kerana bentuknya bersisik licin dan bersirip tajam, mempunyai jangka hayat yang lama dan mampu hidup lebih lama di atas darat walaupun tanpa air. Biasanya ikan puyu ini akan dibiarkan untuk tempoh 2-3 hari sebelum dimasak bagi tujuan menghilangkan bau lumpur.

Persekitaran Ala 'Resort'
Seorang usahawan Melayu tempatan di Melaka gigih mengusahakan ternakan ikan puyu secara komersil. Tapak projek ternakannya terletak lebih kurang 14 kilometer dari pekan Alor Gajah, iaitu di Kg Baru Taboh Naning, Jalan Taboh Naning, Melaka. Syarikat Sempadan Gemilang Enterprise milik Encik Amir bin Haji Asran terletak di kawasan perkampungan yang di sekitarnya terdapat pokok buah-buahan seperti pisang dan rambutan.
Rumah banglo dua tingkat yang dibina sendiri Encik Amir dikelilingi pokok kelapa, pokok palma, pokok bunga kertas dan bonsai menyerlahkan keindahan persekitaran landskap rumah beliau. Pokok-pokok ini meredupkan kawasan sekitar tapak di samping menjadi sempadan antara kolam-kolam ikan.

Pencetus Semangat

Minat untuk berniaga sendiri telah timbul seawal beliau berumur 17 tahun. 20 tahun selepas itu, Encik Amir boleh berbangga kerana beliau merupakan salah seorang pelopor dalam bidang ternakan ikan puyu di negeri Melaka.

Sejarah Encik Amir berniaga sendiri bermula dengan menjual buah-buahan selepas tamat tingkatan lima. Minat yang mendalam untuk menjadi usahawan berjaya menyebabkan beliau mengambil keputusan untuk menamatkan pendidikan formal ke peringkat STPM. Sebagai permulaan, beliau berhijrah ke Brunei. "Nak melihat negeri orang", ujar Encik Amir ringkas.

Selama 4 bulan di Brunei, banyak ilmu dan pengalaman diperolehi beliau. Melihat orang Brunei hidup senang dengan usaha sendiri tanpa bantuan subsidi dari kerajaan telah membakar semangat beliau. Kesenangan dan kejayaan yang dicapai hari ini adalah dengan usaha sendiri. Usaha lebih akan menghasilkan ganjaran yang lebih. Melihat orang lain hidup senang dan berjaya telah mendorong beliau untuk memulakan perniagaan sendiri.

Permulaan yang Sederhana

Dengan bantuan isteri beliau, Puan Hajijah binti Haji Abdul Wahid, Encik Amir memulakan projek ternakan ikan puyu pada tahun 1994. Tanah seluas 4 ekar milik keluarga dibeli dan dijadikan sebagai tapak projek. Berbekalkan modal sendiri sebanyak RM20,000 beliau memulakan projek dengan sebuah kolam bersaiz 40' X 80'.

Tapak projek dilengkapi dengan kemudahan-kemudahan asas seperti air, elektrik, telefon dan sistem perparitan yang sempurna. Untuk sampai ke tapak projek bukanlah satu masalah kerana ia boleh dihubungi oleh semua kenderaan darat melalui jalan raya utama. Kini, terdapat 12 buah kolam tanah dan 18 buah kolam konkrit. Kolam-kolam ini digunakan untuk penetasan benih ikan, penternakan dan penghasilan induk ikan.

Potensi Ikan Puyu

Mengapa agaknya Encik Amir memilih ikan puyu untuk dikomersilkan? Berpotensikah ia? Ikan puyu (Climbing Perch) atau nama saintifiknya Anabias Testudineus, turut dipanggil ikan betok oleh penduduk tempatan. Habitat ikan puyu biasanya di sawah padi, tasik, paya, lubuk dan anak sungai.

Melihat ikan puyu di dalam kolam dan sangkar penetasan mengundang pelbagai persoalan. Mampukah ikan sekecil ini menarik minat pembeli? Berjayakah ia jika dikomersilkan secara besar-besaran? Saiznya yang kecil dan warnanya yang gelap begitu jauh sekali dengan ternakan aqua-culture yang lain. Bila melihat keadaan ini, pasti ramai yang tertanya-tanya sejauh manakah perusahaan ini akan berjaya.

"Walaupun rupanya kurang menarik, tetapi rasanya sedap!", tegas Encik Amir. Memang ramai yang kurang sedar bahawa rasanya yang sedap dan isi yang lembut telah menarik permintaan yang tinggi dari pemborong dan pembeli. Ini kerana ia mempunyai pelbagai khasiat seperti menahan serangan penyakit, meningkatkan tenaga lelaki dan melambatkan proses penuaan bagi wanita. Ikan puyu amat enak digoreng, dimasak lemak cili api atau masak sambal.

Kini, Encik Amir mampu mengeluarkan 250,000 benih ikan puyu sebulan berdasarkan permintaan pelanggan. Induk ikan puyu diperolehi daripada kawasan paya setempat selain diambil dari Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang, Kedah, Perlis dan Negeri Sembilan. Anak ikan betina dijual dengan harga 30 hingga 40 sen seekor, manakala anak ikan jantan dijadikan induk. Selepas 4 atau 5 bulan, ikan-ikan mampu mencapai tempoh matang dan seberat sehingga 250 hingga 300 gram seekor, telah sedia untuk dipasarkan.

Bantuan Kewangan

Pada tahun 1999, Encik Amir berjaya memohon pinjaman kewangan sebanyak RM75,000 daripada Bank Pertanian Malaysia melalui kemudahan Tabung Untuk Makanan (3F) untuk membiayai perbelanjaan semasa ke atas projek ternakan di samping meningkatkan prestasi syarikat melalui perancangan-perancangan yang telah dirangka.

Selain memberi bantuan kewangan, Bank Pertanian Malaysia turut mengawasi projek yang dijalankan. Pegawai-pegawai Bank Pertanian juga seringkali mengunjungi tapak projek bagi tujuan pemerhatian dan pemantauan. Encik Amir berkata bantuan dari Bank Pertanian Malaysia banyak membantu beliau dalam memperkembangkan ternakan ikan puyunya. Bank Pertanian telah membuktikan peranannya dalam membantu usahawan-usahawan kecil tempatan seperti beliau sendiri.

Usahawan Berwawasan

Setelah hampir 10 tahun bergiat dalam projek ternakan ikan air tawar ini, Encik Amir berharap agar segala titik peluhnya terbayar melalui kepuasan hati pembeli dan pelanggan-pelanggannya. Beliau turut bersedia memberi nasihat dan menjadi konsultan kepada pengusaha-pengusaha yang ingin menceburi bidang ini.

Di samping mengusahakan ternakan ikan puyu, beliau turut menceburi bidang landskap, membuat pelan kolam serta menjual pokok bunga. Usaha dan wawasan Encik Amir wajar dijadikan contoh kepada usahawan-usahawan baru yang ingin memulakan perniagaan sendiri. Kejayaan Encik Amir sesuai kiranya dikaitkan dengan pepatah Melayu, berakit-rakit ke hulu, berenang-renang ke tepian, bersusah-susah dahulu, bersenang-senang kemudian.


Sumber : Buletin Patriot, Bank Pertanian Malaysia.


IKAN PUYU HELPS AMIR CLIMB LADDER OF SUCCESS

MALAYS believe the ikan puyu has supernatural attributes but one man is looking beyond it and is cashing in on its commercial value, writes RUPA DAMODARAN.

IT IS not uncommon to see ikan puyu (climbing perch) kept in small fish bowls in Malay households, especially in the rural areas, to ward off or warn of the presence of evil spirits, like the toyol or other forces linked with black magic.
But that was the furthest from the mind of Amir Asran when he decided to breed ikan puyu at his home in Kampung Baru Taboh Naning, about 14 kilometres from Alor Gajah in Malacca.

The commercial value of this fish, known scientifically as anabas testudineus, or the fish that climbs trees, was too good to overlook, he says.

"Five-month-old fish which weighs between 250 and 300 grams can fetch about RM12-RM15 a kg," says the first commercial breeder of ikan puyu in Malacca.

From his 16ha farm, he has been able to meet the demands of wholesalers and fish breeders in Malacca, Negri Sembilan, Johor, the Klang Valley and Pahang.

His expertise is not confined to providing supplies only. He may not have received any formal training, but Amir is often looked upon as an expert in the field with his indepth understanding of this fish, more popular as an ornamental fish.

Ikan puyu, which was only found in swamps, rice fields, streams and lakes, was categorised as another indigenous (ikan asli terbiar) and joined the well-known cousins like the patin (striped catfish), lampam jawa (Javanese carp), tilapia, carp and keli (catfish).

"Compared to the other freshwater species, ikan puyu is the most hardy found in the wetlands of Southeast Asia, which accounts for why it is able to survive on land for long periods without water," he said in an interview at his home recently. The climbing perch can stay alive for a long time out of water. It is no wonder that this species was first discovered in Asia in the late 18th century, up on a palm tree enjoying a trickle of water that ran down the trunk.

That was probably how the fish - which is now on the list of endangered species in Australia - acquired the common name.

In addition to the fleshy gills that all bony fishes have for breathing in water, the gills of the climbing perch has a special labyrinth organ which enables it to breathe air.

Its muddy appearance of olive grey may not look appealing but few know that its slimy surface actually lends it as one of the more resistant fish species to illnesses.

"Unknown to most is the quality of this freshwater species - fleshy, soft and tasty, not to mention its high protein content."

Amir started off with a small pond when he embarked on the project in 1994 although it was only commercialised three years later.

He stocked the pond with 10,000 catfish fry, hoping to sell fish fry or develop them to adult fish to be sold to markets.

But the mortality rate forced him instead to spend more time studying the behaviour, habitat and management of the ponds.

He then discovered the potential of the ikan puyu dismissed by most as a drain fish.

"Although I was able to obtain the fish from the rice fields and other waterways, there was difficulty in getting the fry."

"It was only after two to three years of studies and picking up some techniques from the Fisheries Department that I found that I could also hatch the two-inch fry in my own ponds."

Amir started off with 200,000 fry and and has developed his farm to increase its capacity to one million. Each two-inch fry is sold at 40 sen.

The matured six-inch ikan puyu, which would be four months old, is sold to the wet markets and other markets too for about RM12 per kilo.

Word has got around about this enterprising aquafarmer and his numerous activities which include landscaping, horticulture and construction.

"I can understand the difficulty of anyone venturing into this business and I am willing to teach the techniques of breeding."

There are those who have attempted to venture into the aquafarming business and their trial farming of the ikan puyu has proven to be a dismal failure but Amir together with his wife Hajijah Abdul Wahid persevered.

Today there are 12 natural ponds and 18 concrete ponds on his farm, with natural water sourced from the neighbouring foothills through underground pipes.

"Six of these concrete ponds, which are between 200 and 400 sq ft in size, are hatcheries while the larger ones are used for breeding and developing the females.

A self-made fish farmer with no formal training, Amir also saved up for his start-up capital over the years.

On completion of his Form Six, Amir sold fruits along the roadside and saved about RM7,000.

He decided to do business in Brunei but after some time decided to return home with Hajijah as his bride.

In a lovely house which he has built for his family which include his three sons, every day sees a hive of activity.

Visitors are seen streaming in almost every other day, including agriculture and bank officials from Kenya, Indonesia and Laos.

The couple is also toying with an eco-tourism project and is working towards developing chalets and the like for those who want to enjoy a family day outing with activities like angling and barbecues.

SOURCE: NEW STRAITS TIMES 15.02.2004



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